The aim of this publication is to contribute to the important debates and adoption of strategies onfreedom of association, including in its connection with other rights like freedom of peacefulassembly, opinion, and expression. This document is meant to be a Toolkit for advocacy. It is not acomprehensive review of the current situation in the Middle East and North Africa.The document is issued as part of the “Arab Freedom of Association Network” project jointlyadministered by the International Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ICNL) and the Arab NGO Networkfor Development (ANND). It therefore uses examples mainly from the countries that this projectfocuses on, namely Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, and Yemen. Examples fromother Arab countries are sometimes used.This document is structured to define the international standards first, then describe the currentproblems in the region, and end with suggestions to overcome these issues through campaigningstrategies.