This report considers how tax and fiscal systems in the Arab region could better support social justice and delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals in the context of economic challenges and Arab movements for social justice. It is part of a wider effort towards promoting tax justice led by ANND with the support of the Ford Foundation and Christian Aid, and accompanies a tax justice toolkit and the report, Tax and Gender Justice in the Arab Region. Through this report we aim to support civil society efforts toward promoting tax justice and to invite greater engagement on the subject by civil society in the region and beyond. We highlight how civil society groups can support governments to ensure that tax and fiscal policies are relevant to national contexts, promote social justice and are coherent with national development and human rights commitments. Citizens and civil society organisations have a right to scrutinise tax and fiscal policies and are well placed to comment on how these could be improved, based on the specific concerns and issues faced by people living in poverty or affected by social and economic inequalities.